Benjamin Lundys - History

Benjamin Lundys - History

Nathaniel Macon

Speaker of the House

(1758-1837)

Nathaniel Macon was born in Macon Manor, in Edgecombe (now Warren) County, North Carolina; on December 17, 1758. He attended the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) from 1774 to 1776, served briefly in the New Jersey militia and studied law for three years in North Carolina. After serving as a private in the Continental Army from 1780 to 1782, he became a state Senator for three terms. Macon opposed the US Constitution, with concerns that it gave too much power to the central government. After it was ratified and the new government was established, he became a member of the house of Representatives in 1791, chosen as Speaker of the House from 1801 to 1807. He led the Democratic-Republicans, and was a friend of Jefferson and enemy of Hamilton and the Federalists. Macon remained in the House of Representatives until 1815, when he was elected to the US Senate. He was a Senator until 1828, and was president pro tempore of the Senate the last two years of his term. In 1835, he presided over a convention to revise the North Carolina constitution. Macon died in Buck Springs, North Carolina, on June 29, 1837.


Home of Benjamin Lundy

Here in 1815 he organized the Union Human Society, the first abolitionist society in the U.S.

Born 1789 N.J. Died 1839 Illinois.

Edited The Genius of Universal Emancipation 1821-1838. Devoted his life to the abolition of slavery.

Erected 1939 by Belmont County Historical Society.

Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Abolition & Underground RR &bull Notable Buildings. A significant historical year for this entry is 1815.

Location. 40° 4.848′ N, 80° 53.908′ W. Marker is in St. Clairsville, Ohio, in Belmont County. Marker is on East Main Street (U.S. 40) near Sugar Street. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Saint Clairsville OH 43950, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Benjamin Lundy Champion of Freedom (within shouting distance of this marker) Captain Thomas Drummond (about 500 feet away, measured in a direct line) Belmont County Veterans Memorial (about 600 feet away) Milestone Marks where Extension of National Road. (about 600 feet away) Medal of Honor Recipients of Belmont County (about 600 feet away) Belmont County Revolutionary War Veterans (about 700 feet away) Belmont County / Groundbreaking Site of the National Road in Ohio

(about 700 feet away) Governor Arthur St. Clair 1734-1818 (about 700 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in St. Clairsville.

More about this marker. The marker was cast by the Cupal Casting Co. of Bellaire, Ohio.

Also see . . .
1. Benjamin Lundy - Ohio History Central. (Submitted on March 31, 2009, by Christopher Busta-Peck of Shaker Heights, Ohio.)
2. Genius of Universal Emancipation - Ohio History Central. (Submitted on March 31, 2009, by Christopher Busta-Peck of Shaker Heights, Ohio.)


Lundy, Benjamin (1789&ndash1839)

Benjamin Lundy, antislavery advocate, was born in Sussex County, New Jersey, of Quaker parentage on January 4, 1789. He became active in the antislavery movement in the 1820s. He organized abolitionist societies, lectured extensively, and contributed to many abolitionist publications. Believing that the slavery problem could be solved by settling free Blacks in thinly populated regions, he visited Haiti and Canada and between the years 1830 and 1835 paid three visits to Texas in hopes of obtaining land for such a colony. While in Texas he talked to free Blacks, planters, and Mexican officials and visited Nacogdoches, San Antonio, and the Brazos and Rio Grande areas. He concluded that Texas was an ideal place for his colonization experiment the Mexican government was friendly to his proposal. The Texas Revolution intervened before Lundy could carry out his plans, however, and the Republic of Texas legalized slavery. Lundy charged that the revolution was a slaveholders' plot to take Texas from Mexico and to add slave territory to the United States. He began publishing the National Enquirer and Constitutional Advocate of Universal Liberty in Philadelphia in August 1836 to set forth his thesis. In the same year he published The War in Texas, a pamphlet arguing against the annexation of Texas to the United States. Lundy won many influential adherents, among them John Quincy Adams, who represented his views in the United States Congress. Adams, Lundy, and their followers were instrumental in delaying the annexation of Texas for nine years. Lundy died on August 22, 1839. After his death his children collected some of his writings, including his accounts of his Texas journeys, and printed them as The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy (1847).

Dictionary of American Biography.

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.


Benjamin Lundy

Benjamin Lundy was born on 4th January, 1789, in Sussex County, New Jersey. A Quaker he was working as a saddlemaker in Wheeling, Vermont, when he first became concerned about the morality of the slave trade. In 1815 he formed the Union Humane Society. Six years later he began publishing the anti-slavery newspaper, Genius of Universal Emancipation.

In 1829, William Lloyd Garrison, joined Lundy as co-editor of the newspaper. The following year Garrison moved to Boston publish the journal, The Liberator. Lundy remained until 1835 when he began another newspaper, The National Enquirer, in Pennsylvania. During this time he travelled extensively searching for suitable places where runaway slaves could settle.

In 1839 Benjamin Lundy moved to Illinois where he revived the Genius of Universal Emancipation, which he published until his death on 22nd August, 1839.


The War in Texas A Review of Facts and Circumstances, showing that this contest is a Crusade Against Mexico, set on foot by Slaveholders, Land Speculators, &c. In Order to Re-Establish, Extend, and Perpetuate the System of Slavery and the Slave Trade.

Opinion piece describing the history and reasons for the Texas Revolution, including the position that it was intended to support slavery in Texas.

Physical Description

Creation Information

Context

This book is part of the collection entitled: Rare Book and Texana Collections and was provided by the UNT Libraries to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 3881 times, with 44 in the last month. More information about this book can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this book or its content.

Author

Publisher

Audiences

Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this book as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this book useful in their work.

Provided By

UNT Libraries

The UNT Libraries serve the university and community by providing access to physical and online collections, fostering information literacy, supporting academic research, and much, much more.

Contact Us

Descriptive information to help identify this book. Follow the links below to find similar items on the Portal.

Description

Opinion piece describing the history and reasons for the Texas Revolution, including the position that it was intended to support slavery in Texas.

Physical Description

Notes

Removed from later pamphlet binding. Sewn.

"By A citizen of the United States."

"[Second Edition, Revised, and Enlarged]."

Subjects

Library of Congress Subject Headings

University of North Texas Libraries Browse Structure

Language

Item Type

Identifier

Unique identifying numbers for this book in the Portal or other systems.

Publication Information

Relationships

  • The War in Texas A Review of Facts and Circumstances, showing that this contest is a Crusade Against Mexico, set on foot by Slaveholders, Land Speculators, &c. In Order to Re-Establish, Extend, and Perpetuate the System of Slavery and the Slave Trade. [e-book], ark:/67531/metapth846107

Collections

This book is part of the following collection of related materials.

Rare Book and Texana Collections

These materials include a 1633 map, America Noviter Delineata H. K. Yoakum's History of Texas, and Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana, in the year 1852 by Randolph B. Marcy.

Related Items

The War in Texas A Review of Facts and Circumstances, showing that this contest is a Crusade Against Mexico, set on foot by Slaveholders, Land Speculators, &c. In Order to Re-Establish, Extend, and Perpetuate the System of Slavery and the Slave Trade. (Book)

Opinion piece describing the history and reasons for the Texas Revolution, including the position that it was intended to support slavery in Texas.

Relationship to this item: (Has Format)

The War in Texas A Review of Facts and Circumstances, showing that this contest is a Crusade Against Mexico, set on foot by Slaveholders, Land Speculators, &c. In Order to Re-Establish, Extend, and Perpetuate the System of Slavery and the Slave Trade. [e-book], ark:/67531/metapth846107


Benjamin Lundy, Pioneer Quaker Abolitionist

Benjamin Lundy, like many young men of his time restless and sketchily educated, longed for new places and experiences. The slightly built, freckle-faced, redheaded, teenage farm hand left his Quaker family and meeting in Sussex County, New Jersey, walked to Wheeling, Virginia, and apprenticed himself to a saddler. During his four years there he became conscious of the wrongs of slavery. He saw "droves of a dozen to twenty ragged men, chained together and driven through the streets, bareheaded and barefooted, through mud and snow, by the remorseless sellers with horsewhips and bludgeons in their hands."

He walked westward to Ohio, where he set up a saddlery business in St. Clairsville, met and married Esther Lewis, prospered, and in four years had property worth more than $3,000. He wrote, "I had a loving wife, and two beautiful little daughters. I was at peace with my neighbors and knew not that I had an enemy. I had bought a lot and built myself a comfortable house. Prosperity seemed to shine on me." For ten years he had been thinking about what he could do to aid those in bondage. He sought counsel from Friends, and in 1815 he organized an antislavery association called the Union Humane Society and printed circulars addressed to the people of the United States urging the formation of antislavery societies. "The societies should cooperate in every way to adopt the same name and meet in convention to discuss policies and formulate a common program." This was the first formal antislavery society and was the beginning of the abolition movement.

Charles Osborne, of Mount Pleasant, Ohio, who published The Philanthropist, suggested that Lundy select material, write articles, and, finally, join him in the printing business. Then, for three years, Lundy ran his saddlery business, lectured at every possible gathering, and organized committed groups, beginning with his fellow Quakers. By 1835 there were about 1,000 societies.

Abandoning his prosperous business and leaving his young family in the care of local Friends, he loaded his stock of leather goods on a boat. With three apprentices, he set out on the Ohio river for St. Louis, where he hoped to dispose of his inventory to advantage.

He arrived late in the fall of 1819 in bad weather. The city was tense with the issues of the Missouri question and business was depressed. There is a record that he was made secretary at a society in Jefferson County, Missouri, and that he took an active part in the controversy then raging over the future of the state. He returned on foot in winter, a distance of 700 miles, after an absence of a year and ten months and having lost thousands of dollars. He found the printing business had been sold, leaving him without any business connections.

Deciding to publish an antislavery journal in which he could get out his ideas, in 1821 Lundy sold the first issue of The Genius of Universal Emancipation at a profit. It was to continue intermittently until Lundy’s death. No library possesses a complete file of The Genius, one of the most remarkable newspapers published during the slavery controversy, but separate copies help us piece together the story.

After printing the first eight issues in Ohio, Lundy moved his family to Greenville, Tennessee, where he took over the press of The Emancipator, and learned to set type but found himself in a hostile environment. When his life was threatened he felt it prudent to move his family back to Ohio. There he began traveling for the cause.

The printing was done in many different places: one number in New York and maybe the next from Hudson, the next from Rochester, and so on. Lundy carried his column rules, imprint, heading, etc., in his little trunk with his mail and direction book. With the help of a local printer he furnished his old subscribers while acquiring new ones wherever his foot travel took him. His newspaper sold well. He found warm hospitality among Friends and often plied his trade. Knocking on a door he would offer to mend a strap or harness, or repair a belt. He walked to the East Coast, along the way lecturing and organizing societies (20 while in Deer Creek, North Carolina).

In 1824 Lundy attended the American Convention for the Abolition of Slavery held in Philadelphia and met some of the leaders of the movement from the older states. Lyman Beecher of Boston promised "to flood the country with abolition tracts." Later Lundy invited William Lloyd Garrison to join him in publishing The Genius, but Garrisons’s extremist views brought libel suits and violated Lundy’s Quaker principles. They parted after a few months without rancor. Even so, Lundy was accused of being an agitator, a demagogue, and a madman. He received threats and in Baltimore was brutally assaulted by an angry slaveholder, but his gentle persuasion left small groups of awakened citizens and a trail of abolition newspapers.

Asking himself what was to be done with Africans when they were emancipated and assuming they would need to find homes somewhere other than the United States, he traveled twice to Haiti, where he was unsuccessful in persuading its unstable government to accept freed slaves. He returned from his first trip to find that his wife had died and that his children were being cared for by Quaker families.

Wilberforce, Ohio, Quakers had established a settlement of freed slaves in Ontario, but when he visited the community (in midwinter) he found only about 35 families, which was as large as it ever became. Some who had resettled there had moved on to western Canada, where there were a number of communities of freed slaves. He traveled twice to Texas, too, hoping that this could become a refuge, but after winning independence from Mexico, Texas voted for slavery.

Back in Philadelphia, Lundy published articles and pamphlets on the Texas-Mexican troubles, and in the summer of 1836 he established a new antislavery paper, the National Enquirer, continuing The Genius as a weekly. John Quincy Adams became one of his closest friends. One night they went to a large gathering of Friends in the home of James and Lucretia Mott. Slavery and the abolitionist movement were discussed until late in the evening. When an angry street mob threatened them, all escaped, but Lundy’s possessions, temporarily stored in Pennsylvania Hall, were destroyed by a fire set by the mob.

When Elijah Lovejoy, editor of the Alton Observer in Alton, Illinois, was murdered by a mob in November 1837, antislavery men, planning to start another paper, were delighted to learn that Lundy would be joining his children in Illinois and continuing publication of The Genius. It was hoped that his non-violent Quaker views would be tolerated in Alton, where there had been mob violence.

He turned over the National Enquirer to John Greenleaf Whittier and reached Illinois by stage coach in February 1839. Purchasing a farm near Clear Creek Meeting in McNabb and a printing office in the nearby new village of Lowell, he established his family and, temporarily, used the press in Hennepin to print The Genius.

In the July issue Lundy expressed his sorrow that failing health had required Whittier to relinquish the editorship of the Pennsylvanian Freeman as the publication was commenced by them under the National Enquirer.

Lundy edited but one more issue of The Genius of Universal Emancipation. He wrote that he was unable to perform his duties and complained of a fever. After an illness of two weeks, he died on August 22, 1839, and two days later was laid to rest in Friends Burying Ground of Clear Creek Meeting. The original stone marker is beyond deciphering.

One hundred years after his death, the Centennial Memorial Committee gathered at the grave site and dedicated a bronze plaque to the pioneer abolitionist. The tribute, from Whittier, reads, "It was his lot to struggle, for years almost alone, a solitary voice crying in the wilderness, and, amidst all, faithful to his one great purpose, the emancipation of the slaves."


Benjamin Lundy

Benjamin Lundy (January 4, 1789 – August 22, 1839) was an American Quaker abolitionist from New Jersey of the United States who established several anti-slavery newspapers and traveled widely. He lectured and published seeking to limit slavery's expansion and tried to find a place outside the United States to establish a colony in which freed slaves might relocate.

As William Lloyd Garrison pointed out in a eulogy, Lundy was not the first American abolitionist, but "he was the first of our countrymen who devoted his life and all his power exclusively to the cause of the slaves."

Lundy was born to Joseph and Elizabeth Shotwell Lundy, both Quakers, at Greensville, Hardwick Township, Sussex County, New Jersey. His mother died when he was four, but he became close to his stepmother, Mary Titus Lundy. As a boy, he worked on his father's farm, attending school for only brief periods. In 1804, New Jersey passed a law allowing gradual emancipation of slaves, although the 1810 census in Sussex County showed that more than half of the 758 Negroes were still enslaved.

However, by that time, young Lundy had moved to Wheeling, Virginia (now in West Virginia). In 1808 he was apprenticed to a saddler. On the Ohio River, Wheeling was on important transit point of the interstate slave trade, with coffles of slaves often marched through town. Many would be shipped down the Ohio River toward Kentucky (a slave state) and additional slave states down the Mississippi River. In Wheeling, Lundy saw firsthand many iniquities inherent in the institution of slavery, including the use of horsewhips and bludgeons to force barefoot human beings to walk through mud and snow. He determined to devote his life to the cause of abolition.

Lundy also became acquainted with a local Quaker family, the Stantons, who lived a dozen miles west from Wheeling, in Mt. Pleasant, Ohio. Ohio did not permit slavery, and Benjamin Stanton would become a U.S. Congressman from that district, and two decades after Lundy's death, his brother Edwin Stanton would become Secretary of War under President Abraham Lincoln.

In December 1814 Lundy and Esther Lewis declared their intent to marry in the local Quaker meeting, and did so on February 13, 1815. Her brother William married Lydia Stanton, sister of David Stanton (Edwin Stanton's father). On November 18, 1815 they had their first child, Susan Maria Lundy Wierman (d. 1899). In the following decades, Esther bore two more sons, Charles Tallmadge Lundy (1821-1870) and Benjamin Clarkson Lundy (1826-1861), and two additional daughters, Elizabeth (1818-1879) and Esther (1826-1917).

The young family settled in Saint Clairsville, Ohio, where Lundy soon built up a profitable saddlery business along the highway west (that later became Interstate 70). In 1815, he and five others also organized an anti-slavery association, known as the Union Humane Society, which within a few months had a membership of more than 500. Prominent members included lawyer journalist Charles Hammond, James Wilson (grandfather of President Woodrow Wilson) and Joseph Howells (father of William Dean Howells). Fellow Quaker Charles Osborne, who editing the Philanthropist (later moved to Cincinnati), also showed him journalism and printing basics.

On his birthday, January 4, 1816, Lundy published a circular indicating his intent to found a national anti-slavery society to focus antislavery sentiment and activity. That became his life's work. He named his first son to honor James Tallmadge, whose antislavery speech in the U.S. House on February 16, 1819, Lundy printed in full.

Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee

Lundy decided to liquidate his saddlery business in favor of a publishing business. He and three apprentices moved their stock to St. Louis, Missouri, then the center of a national slavery controversy. However, that area too was gripped by a national depression since the Panic of 1819. However, his side lost—Missouri was admitted as a slave state as a result of the Missouri Compromise of 1820.

The intrepid activist lost goods he valued at over $1000, then trudged 700 miles back to St. Clairville, only to find that Osborne had sold his printing business to Elisha Bates, who did not need additional help. Lundy then established his own anti-slavery paper, the Genius of Universal Emancipation, at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, with the first issue published in January 1821. This periodical, first a monthly and later a weekly, was published successively in Ohio, Greenville, Tennessee, Baltimore, Maryland, the District of Columbia and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It appeared irregularly, and at times, when Lundy was away on lecturing tours, was issued from any office that he could access. Newspapers including the Niles Weekly Register, the New York Spectator and papers from Connecticut and Edwardsville, Illinois reprinted Lundy's exposés.

However, anti-slavery activism did not pay well, and slaveholders did not believe Lundy's arguments that slavery stifled progress, despite his comparisons of the relative prosperity of New York and Pennsylvania with Virginia. Lundy had been recruited to Greenville, Tennessee to work against slavery in a slave state after the death of Elihu Embree, but he found the hostility formidable. Lundy used the equipment purchased from Embree's estate to begin publishing the American Economist and Weekly Political Reporter with more standard farm prices, business and political news in 1822. He also continued to lecture against slavery, and in 1824 attended the American Convention for the Abolition of Slavery, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he connected with other activists! including Robert Purvis. He also traveled to New York to meet with Quaker activist Elias Hicks and to lecture against slavery in North Carolina.

Baltimore and the District of Columbia

After selecting Baltimore to re-establish his business after deciding to move from Tennessee, Lundy moved his family to Maryland in October, 1825. This enabled Lundy to print his newspaper weekly instead of monthly or even less frequently. Lundy also published a biography of Harford County, Maryland, philanthropist and abolitionist Elisha Tyson, as well as a proposal for the gradual emancipation of slaves. In 1826, a slaveowner offered to free twelve slaves if Lundy would accompany them to Haiti. He did so, but found on his return that his wife Esther had died giving birth to twins, and his children were scattered among friends.

On January 9, 1827 Baltimore's most notorious slave-trader, Austin Woolfolk, whom Lundy had been investigating in public records since his move to Baltimore and severely criticizing, assaulted Lundy as he walked along a downtown street. Head-kicks and other injuries until bystanders pulled the strapping Woolfolk off his slightly-built victim confined Lundy to his bed for several days. Woolfolk pleaded guilty to assault, but Judge Nicholas Brice agreed with Woolfolk's lawyers that Lundy had provoked it by criticizing Woolfolk's lawful occupation, and therefore sentenced the slave trader to a one-dollar fine and court costs. He also urged Woolfolk to bring criminal libel charges against Lundy, but a grand jury refused to indict him.

From September 1829 until March 1830, Wm. Lloyd Garrison assisted Lundy in editing the Genius. At this time, the paper was located in Baltimore. Both deplored slavery, but Garrison advocated immediate emancipation on American soil, while Lundy was committed to schemes of colonization abroad. Within a few months, while Lundy traveled in Mexico, Garrison published an exposé of an October slaving voyage of a ship owned by his former neighbor, Francis Todd of Newburyport, Massachusetts, in a deal brokered by Woolfolk. Garrison also published radical articles demanding immediate emancipation, and asserting that the domestic slave trade was as piratical as the foreign. His column the "Black List" detailing atrocities brought trouble, since Garrison was not as careful as Lundy had been at avoiding libels. In February of 1830 Maryland charged Garrison with criminal libel, and Woolfolk's ally Judge Brice sentenced Garrison to a fifty dollar fine plus court costs, and a six-month jail term if he did not pay. This so reduced the Genius's circulation that a friendly dissolution of the partnership between Lundy and Garrison took place after Garrison finished his jail term (where he was treated as a political prisoner and dined with the warden and his wife, as well as wrote extensively). However, Garrison returned to Boston (where he suffered a mob attack in 1835), although Woolfolk's trade also diminished, supplanted by Franklin & Armfield of Alexandria (at the time in the District of Columbia). Lundy followed the trade, shortly afterwards moving his newspaper paper to Washington, D.C., where, after some years under different ownership, it failed.

More travels—including Haiti, Canada, Texas and Mexico𠅊nd Philadelphia

Besides traveling through many states of the United States to deliver anti-slavery lectures (reportedly the first to do so),[citation needed] Lundy visited Haiti twice (in 1825 and 1829) the Wilberforce Colony of freedmen and refugee slaves in Canada in 1830-1831 (perhaps in part avoiding controversy after publishing about Nat Turner's Rebellion) and Texas, in 1832 and again in 1833. Lundy also sought to find a suitable place outside the United States where emancipated slaves might be sent. Between 1820 and 1830, he traveled “more than 5000 miles on foot and 20,000 in other ways, visited 19 states of the Union, and held more than 200 public meetings.” Slaveholders bitterly denounced him, and many non-slaveholders disapproved his anti-slavery agitation.

In 1836-1838 Lundy edited a new anti-slavery weekly, The National Enquirer, which the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society had founded in Philadelphia, as well as wrote extensively about the troubles in Texas and Mexico, especially as they related to slavery. Lundy became a leading voice in denouncing the Texas Revolution as a method to perpetuate slavery in Texas in defiance of Mexico's ban on it. When former president John Quincy Adams came to Philadelphia on his birthday, July 11, 1836, Lundy escorted him to meet other Quakers, including James Mott and his wife Lucretia Mott. Under the editorship of John G. Whittier, Lundy's successor, that paper became The Pennsylvania Freeman.

Lundy purchased a farm near the Clear Creek Meeting House (the westernmost establishment of the Hicksite Friends), as well as the new village of Lowell, Illinois. He printed several issues of the re-established Genius of Universal Emancipation on a borrowed press in nearly Hennepin, Illinois.

Lundy died after an August fever and brief illness at his farm in Lowell, aged fifty. He was buried in the Quaker cemetery in Putnam County, Illinois. Shortly after his death, his family and friends in Philadelphia published his autobiographical Life Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy. Lucretia Mott remembered him in her 1848 speech to the American Anti-Slavery Society in New York.

One hundred years later, a bronze plaque was dedicated to the pioneer abolitionist and placed at his gravesite. The tribute reads, "It was his lot to struggle, for years almost alone, a solitary voice crying in the wilderness, and, amidst all, faithful to his one great purpose, the emancipation of the slaves."

His house in Mount Pleasant is a National Historic Landmark.

Chandler, Elizabeth Margaret (1845). The Poetical Works of Elizabeth Margaret Chandler, with a memoir of her life and character, by Benjamin Lundy. Philadelphia and New York: T. E. Chapman (Philadelphia) Baker, Crane and Day (New York).

Lundy, Benjamin (1845). Anti-Texass [sic] Legion: Protest of some free men, states and presses against the Texass rebellion, against the laws of nature and of nations. "Delenda est Texas". Albany, New York. Archived from the original on 2006-03-23.

Lundy, Benjamin (1837). The war in Texas, a review of facts and circumstances, showing that this contest is a crusade against Mexico, set on foot and supported by slaveholders, land-speculators, &c., in order to re-establish, extend, and perpetuate the system of slavery and the slave trade (2nd, "revised, and enlarged" ed.). Philadelphia.

Benjamin Lundy, pioneering abolitionist, was born in New Jersey on January 4, 1789, to Quaker parents, Joseph and Eliza Lundy. In 1808 Lundy moved to Wheeling, Virginia, to pursue a career in saddle-making. There Lundy experienced his first contact with slavery and developed a lifelong commitment to end the practice.

In order to escape the daily sight of slavery and its conflict with his Quaker religion, Lundy moved to Ohio in 1815. That year he and his newlywed wife, Esther Lewis, settled in St. Clairsville, Ohio, where Lundy opened a successful saddle-making business. In 1816 Lundy founded his first antislavery society, the Union Humane Society, and soon began writing abolitionist articles that first appeared in Charles Osborn's reform newspaper Philanthropist in 1817.

After Osborn sold his newspaper, Lundy began publishing his own antislavery newspaper, the Genius of Universal Emancipation, in January 1821. Following the death of Tennessee abolitionist Elihu Embree, who had published the Emancipator, state abolitionists recruited Lundy to continue the work. Lundy purchased Embree's printing equipment and moved to Greeneville in 1822, where he continued publication of the Genius of Universal Emancipation.

Lundy believed that abolitionism would be most effective if it emanated from a slave state. He circulated the Genius in more than twenty-one states and kept the abolitionist movement alive in the Upper South, especially in Tennessee, Kentucky, and North Carolina. The paper was not a financial success, however, and in 1822 he began publishing a second newspaper, The American Economist and Weekly Political Recorder, which reported farm prices, published poetry, and relayed local and national economic and political news.

While in Greeneville, Lundy joined the Humane Protecting Society and became president of the Greeneville branch of the Tennessee Manumission Society. As president he attended the 1823 national meeting of the American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery held in Philadelphia. This contact with well-financed eastern abolitionists induced Lundy to move his family and newspaper to Baltimore in 1824.

From the columns of his newspaper, Lundy had always advocated gradual emancipation and colonization as the most effective methods to end slavery. In 1825 he presented a formal plan for the “Gradual Abolition of Slavery in the United States without Danger or Loss to the South,” a plan very similar to the work of Francis Wright at Nashoba in Tennessee. Dissatisfied with the lack of interest in his proposal, Lundy traveled to Haiti in the summer of 1825 to look for possible colonization sites. While he was there, his wife died giving birth to twins. On his return, Lundy placed the infants and his three older children with various family members and continued his abolition work.

In 1829 Lundy recruited William Lloyd Garrison as associate editor of the Genius. After a falling out with Garrison, Lundy suspended the publication of the Genius and devoted himself to the search for suitable colonization sites for freed blacks his search took him to Haiti, Canada, and the Texas republic. In 1838 Lundy rejoined his children in Illinois and reestablished the Genius of Universal Emancipation. He published twelve issues prior to his death on August 22, 1839. He is buried in McNabb, Illinois.

The nineteenth-century movement to abolish slavery in the United States had many notable leaders. One of the earliest abolitionists was Benjamin Lundy (1789�), a Quaker who founded the Union Humane Society. He also started the antislavery periodical Philanthropist, which was known as Genius of Universal Emancipation. His efforts anticipated the rising movement toward emancipation, which took hold in the 1830s.


Benjamin Lundy Home / Free Labor Store

Benjamin Lundy Home:
After witnessing the slave trade in Wheeling, Virginia, Quaker abolitionist Benjamin Lundy (1789-1839) resolved to battle the institution, first organizing the Union Humane Society in St. Clairsville in 1815. In 1821, Lundy moved to Mount Pleasant and began publishing the Genius of Universal Emancipation, a newspaper devoted wholly to anti-slavery issues. The newspaper would later be published in Tennessee, Baltimore, Washington D.C., and Philadelphia. Lundy traveled widely to promote circulation, lecturing on the moral evils of slavery and its associated negative economic and social effects. The Lundy home served as an Underground Railroad stop.

Free Labor Store:
Built in 1813, the left side of this structure was the site of the Free Labor Store. Residents of Mount Pleasant, a predominately Quaker community, organized the Mount Pleasant Free Produce Company in 1848 "for the sale of goods, wares, and merchandise in general which shall be exclusively the product of free labor." The store operated until 1857 when the company was dissolved. The dissolution of the Free Produce Company was not a reflection on the lessening of anti-slavery sentiment in Mount Pleasant. This is the only free labor store known in continued existence.

2003 by The Ohio Bicentennial Commission, the P&G Fund, and The Ohio Historical Society. (Marker Number 5-41.)

Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: Abolition & Underground RR. In addition, it is included in the Ohio Historical Society / The Ohio History Connection, and the Quakerism ⛪ series lists. A significant historical year for this entry is 1815.

Location. 40° 10.495′ N, 80° 48.208′ W. Marker is in Mount Pleasant, Ohio, in Jefferson County. Marker is at the intersection of Union Street (Ohio Route 647) and Market Street, on the right when traveling east on Union Street. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Dillonvale OH 43917, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 4 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Birthplace of Moses Fleetwood Walker (within shouting distance of this marker) Samuel Gill House (within shouting distance of this marker) Quaker Meeting House (within shouting distance of this marker) Elizabeth House Mansion (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line) Mount Pleasant Veterans Memorial (approx. 0.2 miles away) Mount Pleasant Historic Underground Railroad District (approx. 0.2 miles away) Morgan's Raid (approx. 2 miles away) a different marker also named Morgan's Raid (approx. 3.4 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Mount Pleasant.


Benjamin Lundy

Benjamin Lundy, pioneering abolitionist, was born in New Jersey on January 4, 1789, to Quaker parents, Joseph and Eliza Lundy. In 1808 Lundy moved to Wheeling, Virginia, to pursue a career in saddle-making. There Lundy experienced his first contact with slavery and developed a lifelong commitment to end the practice.

In order to escape the daily sight of slavery and its conflict with his Quaker religion, Lundy moved to Ohio in 1815. That year he and his newlywed wife, Esther Lewis, settled in St. Clairsville, Ohio, where Lundy opened a successful saddle-making business. In 1816 Lundy founded his first antislavery society, the Union Humane Society, and soon began writing abolitionist articles that first appeared in Charles Osborn's reform newspaper Philanthropist in 1817.

After Osborn sold his newspaper, Lundy began publishing his own antislavery newspaper, the Genius of Universal Emancipation, in January 1821. Following the death of Tennessee abolitionist Elihu Embree, who had published the Emancipator, state abolitionists recruited Lundy to continue the work. Lundy purchased Embree's printing equipment and moved to Greeneville in 1822, where he continued publication of the Genius of Universal Emancipation.

Lundy believed that abolitionism would be most effective if it emanated from a slave state. He circulated the Genius in more than twenty-one states and kept the abolitionist movement alive in the Upper South, especially in Tennessee, Kentucky, and North Carolina. The paper was not a financial success, however, and in 1822 he began publishing a second newspaper, The American Economist and Weekly Political Recorder, which reported farm prices, published poetry, and relayed local and national economic and political news.

While in Greeneville, Lundy joined the Humane Protecting Society and became president of the Greeneville branch of the Tennessee Manumission Society. As president he attended the 1823 national meeting of the American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery held in Philadelphia. This contact with well-financed eastern abolitionists induced Lundy to move his family and newspaper to Baltimore in 1824.

From the columns of his newspaper, Lundy had always advocated gradual emancipation and colonization as the most effective methods to end slavery. In 1825 he presented a formal plan for the “Gradual Abolition of Slavery in the United States without Danger or Loss to the South,” a plan very similar to the work of Francis Wright at Nashoba in Tennessee. Dissatisfied with the lack of interest in his proposal, Lundy traveled to Haiti in the summer of 1825 to look for possible colonization sites. While he was there, his wife died giving birth to twins. On his return, Lundy placed the infants and his three older children with various family members and continued his abolition work.

In 1829 Lundy recruited William Lloyd Garrison as associate editor of the Genius. After a falling out with Garrison, Lundy suspended the publication of the Genius and devoted himself to the search for suitable colonization sites for freed blacks his search took him to Haiti, Canada, and the Texas republic. In 1838 Lundy rejoined his children in Illinois and reestablished the Genius of Universal Emancipation. He published twelve issues prior to his death on August 22, 1839. He is buried in McNabb, Illinois.


Watch the video: Walter Benjamin On the Concept of History - Review